Zora Neale Hurston

Zora Neale Hurston

Zora Neale Hurston (January 7, 1891 – January 28, 1960), was an African-American novelist, memoirist, and ethnographer. Zora was a natural storyteller, having listened to the stories of people she encountered from the time she was young.

Her love of story would lead her not only to create her own, but to collect stories from the oral traditions of the African-American South and the Black cultures of the Caribbean.

With her determined intelligence and irrepressible personality, she quickly became a big name in the Harlem Renaissance movement of the 1920s. She pursued a dual career as a writer (producing novels, short stories, plays, and essays) and as an anthropologist.

 

Early life and education

Born in Notasulga, Alabama, she was the fifth of eight children. Zora’s parents moved to Eatonville, Florida in 1894, where her father became mayor. Growing up in this all-black, self-sufficient small town in central Florida had a lasting impact on Zora as she came of age.

Her mother, a teacher died when she was only 13, which was devastating. Her father, a builder and preacher, remarried and she didn’t get along with her stepmother, causing a rift and forcing her to have to learn to fend for herself.

Some of her later stories took place in towns that resembled Eatonville. She described it as a town where Black people could live and work as they pleased — a very different scenario from other parts of the South.

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Zora Neale Hurston at Howard University

Zora as a student at Howard University
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Zora left Eatonville at age 14 for a rather itinerant life. She joined a traveling theater company, and earned money by working as a maid in the homes of white people. One of her employers saw her talent and made it possible for her to attend high school in Baltimore. Though she was already 26 at the time, she claimed to be 16, and apparently it worked.

Shortly thereafter, in 1918, Zora began her college studies at Howard University in nearby Washington, D.C. There she studied philosophy and black culture with Alain Locke, who was one of her first major influences. While at Howard, Zora began writing and publishing her first short stories, drawing on her upbringing in Eatonville.

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zora neale hurston
Quotes from “How it Feels to Be Colored Me”
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Harlem Renaissance

Zora began her life in New York City in 1925, plunging into the fertile period of black art, literature, and culture now referred to as the Harlem Renaissance (at the time, it was more commonly called The New Negro Movement). Boisterous and outgoing, she met and befriended other talented black writers, including Langston Hughes and Dorothy West.

She became an assistant to one of the most hugely successful writers of the era, Fannie Hurst, who was Jewish. The two developed a deep, if sometimes complicated friendship. Zora’s reputation, of course, has far eclipsed Hurst’s.

Zora was an outspoken, outstanding figure in the movement. She displayed great style, loved to laugh, and had great pride in the Black race. Her work reflected her values, though beneath her joyous exterior, there was constant struggle — bad relationships, and never enough money.

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Zora Neale Hurston quotes

See also: Zora Neale Hurston’s Quotes & Life Lessons

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Becoming an anthropologist

Zora was the first black student at Barnard College, the women’s college connected with Columbia. There, starting in 1925, she studied with the noted anthropologist Franz Boas, who recognized her talent for storytelling and abiding interest in black cultures of the American South and Caribbean. She was 37 when she graduated in 1928 with a B.A. in anthropology.

Zora’s writing and anthropological pursuits became intertwined as Boas urged her to pursue more research, something that she loved. A wealthy New Yorker named Charlotte Osgood Mason became Zora’s benefactress for a number of years, allowing her to travel through Florida and the Caribbean to collect stories to place among oral traditions.

In 1936, Zora received a Guggenheim fellowship, which allowed her to delve even more deeply into her research. She traveled to Jamaica and Haiti, with the grant, collecting stories and collecting material on African rituals and voodoo.

Her research resulted in two nonfiction collections about the culture and language of the peoples she researched — Mules and Men and Tell My Horse.

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Zora Neale Hurston 1937

Zora’s famous essay, Crazy for This Democracy
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Jonah’s Gourd Vine & Their Eyes Were Watching God

Bertram Lippincott, the publisher read Zora’s short story “The Gilded Six-Bits” in Story magazine in August 1933. He wrote her to ask whether she was working on a novel. Fortuitously she was, and sent him the manuscript of Jonah’s Gourd Vine by October. It was published the following May of 1934.

Jonah’s Gourd Vine, Zora’s first published novel, drew upon her own experiences. She set it in a Florida town with protagonists John Buddy Pearson and his wife Lucy, who may have been inspired by her own parents. She also drew on her skill as a folklorist to tell the story. In a 1934 review in The Pittsburgh Courier, the eminent African-American critic George Schuyler wrote of the book:

Jonah’s Gourd Vine … is a first class novel by a brilliant young colored woman … this novel is a mine of folklore; a study of social life in the rural South, which the author knows so well … It is smoothly written, a finished piece of work, valuable alike as sociology and literature.”

Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937) is Zora’s most widely read work. It was produced in just a few weeks while she traveled in Haiti. It has become something of a feminist classic, with the heroine of the story, Janie, searching for independence, identity, and happiness over the course of twenty-five years and several relationships. This story is actually not unlike Zora’s own, though it could be argued that she never found true happiness.

 

Dust Tracks on a Road (1942)

Zora’s 1942 autobiography, Dust Tracks on a Road, has confounded readers and scholars since its publication, even as it has entertained and enthralled. Is it true memoir or partially apocryphal? Was the story of her life, as she told it, impressionistic rather than realistic? We can only guess now, but it is still a wise, warm, and interesting read. In her Foreword to the 2006 edition, Maya Angelou wrote:

“Zora Neale Hurston chose to write her own version of life in Dust Tracks on a Road. Through her imagery one soon learns that the author was born to roam, to listen, and to tell a variety of stories. An active curiosity led her throughout the South, where she gathered up the feelings and sayings of her people as a fastidious farmer might gather eggs. When she began to write, she used all the sights she had seen, all the people she encountered and the exploits she had survived …

In this autobiography Hurston describes herself as obstinate, intelligent, and pugnacious. the story she tells of her life could never have been told believably by a non-Black American, and the details even in her own hands and words offer enough confusions, contusions, and contradictions to confound even the most sympathetic researcher.”

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Their Eyes Were Watching God 75th Anniversary Edition

Zora’s best-known work: Their Eyes Were Watching God

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A reputation in decline

In the course of her lifetime, Zora’s reputation began to decline. Though her books sold fairly well, and had many admirers, they had their equal share of detractors. Some Black writers objected to her use of dialect. Other contemporaries were troubled by her political conservatism.

By 1950, she returned to her home state of Florida but was unable to earn a living through writing. She worked as a teacher, librarian, and finally, she returned full circle to working as maid.

Beset by financial and health trouble, she lived her last years in poverty and obscurity. In 1960, Zora Neale Hurston died of a stroke at age 69 while living in a nursing home. She was buried in an unmarked grave.

 

Rediscovering and reviving a great talent

It wasn’t until long after her death that her work was rediscovered and finally appreciated for its integrity and depth. The author Alice Walker played a great part in reviving Hurston’s reputation. In 1973, she placed a marker at the spot where Zora is believed to be buried. On the stone is written, “Zora Neale Hurston, A Genius of the South.”

Zora’s books are now studied and appreciated far more than during her lifetime, having become staples of American literature and women’s studies courses. Of her many works,Their Eyes Were Watching God is arguably the most widely read and studied classic, and a masterpiece of that era of literature.

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Mules and Men by Zora Neale Hurston

Zora Neale Hurston page on Amazon*


More about Zora Neale Hurston

On this site

Major works

Novels, nonfiction, and folk narratives

Short Stories
Some of Zora’s short stories have become well known and are still read and studied. These include:

Plays
Zora’s plays are far less known than her fiction and nonfiction works, mainly because most remain unpublished and unproduced. Still, they reveal another aspect of her talent and ambition. Most of the following plays can be accessed at the Collection of Zora Neale Hurston Plays at the Library of Congress:

  • Meet the Mamma: A Musical Play in Three Acts (1925)
  • Cold Keener, a Revue (1930)
  • De Turkey and de Law: A Comedy in Three Acts (1930)
  • The Mule-Bone: A Comedy of Negro Life in Three Acts (1931; co-written with Langston Hughes)
  • Forty Yards (1931)
  • Lawing and Jawing (1931)
  • Poker! (1931)
  • Woofing (1931)
  • Spunk (1935)
  • Color Struck (1935)
  • Polk County: A Comedy of Negro Life on a Sawmill Camp
    with Authentic Negro Music in Three Acts (1944)

Poems

  • “Journey’s End”
  • “Night”
  • “Passion”

Biographies

  • Dust Tracks on a Road: An Autobiography by Zora Neale Hurston  (1942)
  • I Love Myself : When I am Laughingby Zora Neale Hurston  (posthumous, 1979)
  • Zora Neale Hurston: A Literary Biography by Robert E. Hemenway (1977)
  • Wrapped in Rainbows: The Life of Zora Neale Hurston by Valerie Boyd (2004)
  • Zora Neale Hurston’s Finale Decade by Virginia Lynn Moylan (2011)

More Information and sources

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Zora Neale Hurston

Zora Neale Hurston Quotes and Life Lessons

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